The official U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Records branch (Bureau of Naval Personnel) still maintains the Navy and Marine Corps 1947 IBM printout arranged chronologically by campaign annotating the official World War 2 casualty accounting. Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) Warszawa 2009 .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#3a3;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}ISBN978-83-7629-067-6 Page 15 (There was no explanation given for the difference of 9,300 between this schedule and the total losses of 5,085,000 persons in the description of the Ministry of Finance Report, see above). At both moments, there emerged a gigantic gap between what Americans wanted for the world and what they were actually prepared to do. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. A summary of the main points in uczak's article are as follows. However, as history showed, the same could not be said of the French and the British who could have easily stormed through Germany's poorly defended western borders while the bulk of the German army was busy fighting in Poland. [58][59][60], A. He still wanted to stay out of the European war. [48] The IPN did not estimate the death toll of Polish citizens from these ethnic minorities. Krakw 2011, p.447. In 1916, Wilson dreaded giving any commitments to the British, who pressed him to throw Americas weight behind a reasonable settlement. [72] The estimates of Franciszek Proch were cited by Tadeusz Piotrowski in his book Poland's Holocaust [73], Source of figures: Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 Pages 143-144. (1996). It is estimated that the war resulted in 15-20 million civilian and military death and an additional 15 million Chinese were wounded. [33] Richard C. Lukas points out To be sure, the Poles would have starved to death if they had to depend on the food rationed to them. This was later corroborated by a top German General, Alfred Jodl, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (and the man speaking to Hitler in the picture), who stated at the Nuremberg trials that: The Institute of National Remembrance puts the confirmed death toll due to the Soviet occupation at 150,000 persons including 22,000 murdered Polish military officers and government officials in the Katyn massacre. Data Source: United Nations - World Population Prospects. The Polish strategy was to try to preserve the bulk of its army for this future planned offensive, while defending the country. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994, Victims of the Nazi Regime-Database of Polish citizens repressed under the German Occupation, This page was last edited on 4 December 2022, at 17:51. "Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod okupacj niemieck", "Polish Resistance and Conclusions United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC", Andrzej Gawryszewski LUDNO POLSKI W XX WIEKU POLSKA AKADEMIA NAUK NSTYTUT GEOGRAFII I PRZESTRZENNEGO ZAGOSPODAROWANIA IM. Sound familiar? These civilian deaths are even more difficult to determine, yet they must be counted in any comparative evaluation of national losses. Warsaw 2005. The Battle of France ( French: bataille de France) (10 May - 25 June 1940), also known as the Western Campaign ( Westfeldzug ), the French Campaign ( German: Frankreichfeldzug, campagne de France) and the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France during the Second World War. The fact they betrayed Poland and did nothing else for eight long month until Germany invaded France on May 10, 1940 has been conveniently forgotten by many and almost airbrushed out of the general historical memory. 1/87, 1987. Polska 19391945. This figure was disputed when the communist system collapsed by the Polish historian Czesaw uczak who put total losses at 6.0 million; 3.0 million Jews, 2.0 million ethnic Poles, and 1.0 million Polish citizens from the other ethnic groups not included in the 1947 report on war damages. WWI lasted for 4 years; from 1914 to 1918. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994 p. 47. The deaths that directly resulted from the war are about 50-56 million people while about 19-28 million people died from war-related famine and diseases. The Soviet occupied territories of Poland, with total population of 13.0 million, was subjected to a reign of terror. POLSKA 1939-1945 STRATY OSOBOWE I OFIARY REPRESJI POD DWIEMA OKUPACJAMI. Polska 19391945. After youve shown that your word is not your bond, you face strong pressure to show that it is. The terms of the Triple Alliance binding Germany to Japan and Italy were defensive; Hitler was not obligated to join Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Nothing could be further from the truth. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. )"[1], Comparative Poland's War Dead estimated by Tadeusz Piotrowski in 2005 presented on the Project in Posterum website,[77], Causes of Poland's War Dead estimated by Tadeusz Piotrowski in 2005 on Project in Posterum website,[77], An analysis of Poland's war losses by Kazimierz Bajer was published in the journal of the veterans of the Armia Krajowa. The last thing Stalin wanted was a war with Poland, France and Britain after Germany was defeated. Obama's real legacy makes him one of the worst US presidents of all time. During the occupation many Non-Jewish ethnic Poles were killed in mass executions, including an estimated 37,000 Poles[24] at the Pawiak prison complex run by the Gestapo. The carnage of World War II was unprecedented and brought the world closest to the term "total warfare.". German WW2 - Soldier Death Card * ORIGINAL * 1942 - Fought In France, Poland, | eBay German WW2 -- Soldier Death Card ** ORIGINAL ** 1942 $8.99 + $3.25 shipping German WW2 -- Soldier Death Card ** ORIGINAL ** 1942 $8.99 + $3.25 shipping German WW2 -- Soldier Death Card ** ORIGINAL ** Mountain Division 1942 $8.99 + $3.25 shipping According to the figures published by the Polish government in exile in 1941 the ethnic Polish population was 24,388,000 at the beginning of the war in September 1939. Current estimates now show that the number of war dead within the postwar borders total 26.6 million individuals. Germany suffered over 60,000 casualties in the Polish campaign while the Poles suffered military losses of around 66,000 soldiers who were either killed or missing in action. A surprise invasion by Nazi Germany in September 1939 caught Poland off guard. Bibliography: [32] This Nazi policy caused a humanitarian crisis in Polands urban areas. The French and the British had an almost 5 - 1 manpower advantage, overwhelming air, land and sea superiority and could have been in Berlin in three days time if they attacked, but they chose not to. [13] Over a million Jews deported from Western countries to camps and ghettos set up in occupied Poland perished in the Holocaust. Updates? He was a member of the Polish United Workers' Party in communist Poland. Stalin, who had sign a pact with Hitler a few weeks earlier promising to help it invade, destroy and partition Poland, had originally planned to invade Poland much earlier, but when he saw that the Germans were encountering stiff Polish resistance he decided to postpone Soviet Russia's invasion and let both sides fight and shed each others blood. 103-36 pp. The whole strategy of Poland in 1939 was based on the fact that the UK and France, which had signed defensive military alliances with Poland prior WW2, were supposed to attack Germany two weeks into the war at the latest. This is an inherent but extremely explosive aspect of Americas worldwide military commitments. Poland did not lose the war because it was defeated by Germany or by the USSR, but because it was betrayed by the British and the French, her "allies". We dont mean to hurt anybody, but were going to win the war and then get out. Even in November 1941, despite an ongoing quasi-war with German U-Boats in the North Atlantic, polls showed that 70 percent of the public still wanted to stay out. In all, the scale of human losses during World War II was vast. (200,000 were conscripted into the German Armed Forces, 937,000 were ethnic Germans, 272,000 were Poles involved in the Polish resistance and 815,000 were not involved in the resistance movement. [4], Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths due to Soviet repression at 90,000100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets[40], According to Zbigniew S. Siemaszko the total of those deported was 1,646,000 of whom 1,450,000 were residents and refugees (excluding POWs). The aim of the project was to acquire and "Germanize" children with purportedly Aryan traits who were considered by Nazi officials to be descendants of German settlers in Poland. [75], Sourced from: Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Mainly for this reason, estimates of total dead in World War II vary anywhere from 35,000,000 to 60,000,000a statistical difference of no small import. Ludnosc Polski w XX wieku / Andrzej Gawryszewski. Additionally, at least one million Jews were murdered in the. Dispropaganda is 100% independent non partisan and non profit, in order to keep the site up we rely on financial supprt from our readers. [62], B. Of these various historical parallels, the two which should most hold our attention are the American postures in 1916-1917 and 1940-1941. 621, Grzegorz Motyka, Od rzezi woyskiej do akcji "Wisa". Page 30, The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum believes that "The Nazi terror was, in scholar Norman Davies's words, "much fiercer and more protracted in Poland than anywhere in Europe." Answer (1 of 5): Poland and France basically relied on having large numbers of infantry soldiers, with limited mobility and limited / outclassed air support, Germany practiced "Blitzkrieg": fast-moving armoured and mechanised formations, making the maximum use of firepower and maneuver. [2][3] In 2009 the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) published the study "Polska 19391945. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there has been a significant amount of research conducted regarding the topic of World War 2 casualties with the resulting opening of previously closed scholarly resources. [4] The Institute of National Remembrance maintains that 7,500 ethnic Ukrainians were also killed during this interethnic conflict [27][46], The figure of 5.6 to 5.8 million war dead estimated by the IPN was for only the Jewish and ethnic Polish population. They did not provide a detailed population balance showing how the figures were derived. Poland lost about 5.9 million citizens or one-fifth of its pre-war population during World War II. [55] Based on the analysis by Tadeusz Piotrowski roughly 1.0 million Ukrainians and Belarusians and 400,000 Polish speaking Jews were misclassified as Poles in the official figures for the 1939 population. Of the total deaths, 21-25 million were military officers while civilians who die in the war were 50-55 million. The war left at least 70 million people dead or 3% of the world's population at the time. The invader finds itself doing all sorts of odious things that it did not intend, but which the press of necessity (the alternative is losing) seems to command. [17], D. Population Losses 1939 Campaign- Bajer estimated that 69% of the 1,230,000 human losses in Sept. 1939 were Poles. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Only for the United States and the British Commonwealth can official figures showing killed, wounded, prisoners or missing for the armed forces be cited with any degree of assurance. Germany invaded Poland to regain lost territory and ultimately rule their neighbor to the east. Depending on the definitions placed on deaths or casualties that resulted from warfare or crimes against humanity by historians, the figures will vary across resources. [71] Proch published Poland's Way of the Cross in 1987 in which he estimated Poland's war dead. The official Historical Journal of the Polish military has published statistics on Polish military casualties. How many people died during World War II? While the treatment of factory workers or farm hands often varied depending on the individual employer, most Polish laborers were compelled to work longer hours for lower wages than Western Europeans. Depending on the definitions placed on deaths or casualties that resulted from warfare or crimes against humanity by historians, the figures will vary across resources. A version of this story appeared in Science, Vol 373, Issue 6557. The government of Germany reported that about 4.3 million military personnel either died or are missing and 0.5-2 million civilian deaths. The totals below should be treated as approximate figures. Answer (1 of 7): Likely there would be no WWII, but the Soviet action and the results of those would be a question mark. Everybody was operating under the cloud of having previously not supported their allies with the resolution demanded by them. Statistics for Polish World War II casualties are divergent and contradictory. The estimates for losses of the Jewish population in the Holocaust range from 2.7 million to 3.4 million persons. About 150,000 of these casualties were suffered by the French army during the German invasion and the Allied . Losses during the German occupation of Polish territory were 5.1 million persons. The 15-minute data visualization uses cinematic storytelling techniques to provide viewers with a fresh and dramatic perspective of a pivotal moment in history. Unstinting aid to the allies, non-involvement in the war. [1] Most were civilian victims of the war crimes and crimes against humanity during the occupation by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The manner of the United States' entrance into both World Wars should be a warning to us in how we respond to Ukraine. Whatever there was to do, in philosophical speculation, political action or cultural achievement, appeared to have been done, and done with a supreme vigour and accomplishment, among a people whose history not only had the clarity of distance in time but the wholeness of a completed cycle, from obscurity through world empire to barbarian chaos.. [92][93] The Polish contribution to World War II included the Polish Armed Forces in the West, and the 1st and 2nd Polish Army fighting under Soviet command. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Second world war, world war two, the great patriotic war. About 4,200,000 Germans died, and about 1,972,000 Japanese died. In Warsaw, between 1942 and 1944, there were approximately 400 daily victims of apankas. China primary fought Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. Population includes 25.0 million Poles and 3.4 million Jews. In 1987 the Polish Academy of Science journal Studia Demograficzne published an article by Kazimierz Piesowicz that analyzed the demographic balance from Poland from 1939-1950. The whole strategy of Poland in 1939 was based on the fact that the UK and France, which had signed defensive military alliances with Poland prior WW2, were supposed to attack Germany two weeks into the war at the latest. During the occupation, communities were held collectively responsible for Polish attacks against German troops and mass executions were conducted in reprisal. 0.510%. Read More What Was The Underlying Cause Of World War 1 Essay 719 Words | 3 Pages These civilian deaths are even more difficult to determine, yet they must be counted in any comparative evaluation of national losses. When he did declare war, it was a huge relief to the Roosevelt Administration, which instantly telegraphed, with the delight of having been won over by a dark seducer: Me too! [62], Criticism of 1947 Report of Polish Bureau of War Damages, The Polish government Ministry of Finance in 1951 prepared a study to investigate and detail Poland's war losses in order to document claims for war reparations from Germany. Despite the western betrayal, If Russia had not invaded Poland in 17 September, 1939, Poland would have dragged the fighting for many more weeks. [57], In April 1947 the Polish government Bureau of War Damages (BOW) published an analysis of Poland's war losses. Institute of National Remembrance (IPN), Warszawa 2009, Lee Ready, World War Two: Nation by Nation, Arms & Armour, 1996, Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, University of New Hampshire at Manchester, Central Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes in Poland, Europe at War 19391945: No Simple Victory, Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and For All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947, Timothy Snyder, Working Paper, Yale University, 2001. Polish infantry fought well, but by September 19, the overwhelming German reinforcements had defeated the Poles. However inexact many of the figures, their main import is clear. WW2, on the other hand, lasted 6 whole years, from 1939 to 1945. Within Poland, the IPN (Polish Institute of National Remembrance) places their estimated war dead between 5.6 and 5.8 million people. During the war he was imprisoned at the Dachau concentration camp. The Polish resistance movement lost an additional 100,000 fighters during the war.[63]. It is reminiscent in the first instance of Woodrow Wilsons call for a League of Nations in 1916 and 1917, when he was still determined to stay out of the European war.
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